PRC-006-NPCC-1: Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding

Purpose

To provide a regional reliability standard that ensures the development of an effective automatic underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) program in order to preserve the security and integrity of the bulk power system during declining system frequency events in coordination with the NERC UFLS reliability standard characteristics.

Applicability

4.1. Generator Owner

4.2. Planning Coordinator

4.3. Distribution Provider

4.4. Transmission Owner

Effective Date

For the Eastern Interconnection & Québec Interconnection portions of NPCC excluding the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Planning Coordinator area of NPCC in Ontario, Canada:

The effective date for Requirements R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 is the first day of the first calendar quarter following applicable regulatory approval but no earlier than January 1, 2016 The effective date for Requirements R8 through R23 is the first day of the first calendar quarter two years following applicable governmental and regulatory approval.

For the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Planning Coordinator’s area of NPCC in Ontario, Canada:

All requirements are effective the first day of the first calendar quarter following applicable governmental and regulatory approval but no earlier than April 1, 2017.

Requirements

R1 Each Planning Coordinator shall establish requirements for entities aggregating their UFLS programs for each anticipated island and requirements for compensatory load shedding based on islanding criteria (required by the NERC PRC Standard on UFLS). [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R2 Each Planning Coordinator shall, within 30 days of completion of its system studies required by the NERC PRC Standard on UFLS, identify to the Regional Entity the generation facilities within its Planning Coordinator Area necessary to support the UFLS program performance characteristics. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R3 Each Planning Coordinator shall provide to the Transmission Owner, Distribution Provider, and Generator Owner within 30 days upon written request the requirements for entities aggregating the UFLS programs and requirements for compensatory load shedding program derived from each Planning Coordinator’s system studies as determined by Requirement R1. [Violation Risk Factor: Low] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R4 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner in the Eastern Interconnection portion of NPCC shall implement an automatic UFLS program reflecting normal operating conditions excluding outages for its Facilities based on frequency thresholds, total nominal operating time and amounts specified in Attachment C, Tables 1 through 3, or shall collectively implement by mutual agreement with one or more Distribution Providers and Transmission Owners within the same island identified in Requirement R1 and acting as a single entity, provide an aggregated automatic UFLS program that sheds their coincident peak aggregated net Load, based on frequency thresholds, total nominal operating time and amounts specified in Attachment C, Tables 1 through 3. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R5 Each Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner that must arm its load to trip on underfrequency in order to meet its requirements as specified and by doing so exceeds the tolerances and/or deviates from the number of stages and frequency set points of the UFLS program as specified in the tables contained in Requirement R4 above, as applicable depending on its total peak net Load shall: [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

5.1 Inform its Planning Coordinator of the need to exceed the stated tolerances or the number of stages as shown in UFLS Attachment C, Table 1 if applicable and

5.2 Provide its Planning Coordinator with a technical study that demonstrates that the Distribution Providers or Transmission Owners specific deviations from the requirements of UFLS Attachment C, Table 1 will not have a significant adverse impact on the bulk power system.

5.3 Inform its Planning Coordinator of the need to exceed the stated tolerances of UFLS Attachment C, Table 2 or Table 3, and in the case of Attachment C, Table 2 only, the need to deviate from providing two stages of UFLS, if applicable, and

5.4 Provide its Planning Coordinator with an analysis demonstrating that no alternative load shedding solution is available that would allow the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner to comply with UFLS Attachment C Table 2 or Attachment C Table 3.

R6 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner in the Québec Interconnection portion of NPCC shall implement an automatic UFLS program for its Facilities based on the frequency thresholds, slopes, total nominal operating time and amounts specified in Attachment C, Table 4 or shall collectively implement by mutual agreement with one or more Distribution Providers and Transmission Owners within the same island, identified in Requirement R1, an aggregated automatic UFLS program that sheds Load based on the frequency thresholds, slopes, total nominal operating time and amounts specified in Attachment C, Table 4. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R7 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall set each underfrequency relay that is part of its region’s UFLS program with the following minimum time delay:

7.1 Eastern Interconnection – 100 ms

7.2 Québec Interconnection – 200 ms

[Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R8 Each Planning Coordinator shall develop and review once per calendar year settings for inhibit thresholds (such as but not limited to voltage, current and time) to be utilized within its region’s UFLS program. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R9 Each Planning Coordinator shall provide each Transmission Owner and Distribution Provider within its Planning Coordinator area the applicable inhibit thresholds within 30 days of the initial determination of those inhibit thresholds and within 30 days of any changes to those thresholds. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

R10 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall implement the inhibit threshold settings based on the notification provided by the Planning Coordinator in accordance with Requirement R9. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

R11 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall develop and submit an implementation plan within 90 days of the request from the Planning Coordinator for approval by the Planning Coordinator in accordance with R9. [Violation Risk Factor: Lower] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

R12 Each Transmission Owner and Distribution Provider shall annually provide documentation, with no more than 15 months between updates, to its Planning Coordinator of the actual net Load that would have been shed by the UFLS relays at each UFLS stage coincident with their integrated hourly peak net Load during the previous year, as determined by measuring actual metered Load through the switches that would be opened by the UFLS relays. [Violation Risk Factor: Lower] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R13 Each Generator Owner shall set each generator underfrequency trip relay, if so equipped, below the appropriate generator underfrequency trip protection settings threshold curve in Figure 1, except as otherwise exempted in Requirements R16 and R19. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R14 Each Generator Owner shall transmit the generator underfrequency trip setting and time delay to its Planning Coordinator within 45 days of the Planning Coordinator’s request. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

R15 Each Generator Owner with a new generating unit, scheduled to be in service on or after the effective date of this Standard, or an existing generator increasing its net capability by greater than 10% shall: [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

15.1 Design measures to prevent the generating unit from tripping directly or indirectly for underfrequency conditions above the appropriate generator tripping threshold curve in Figure 1.

15.2 Design auxiliary system(s) or devices used for the control and protection of auxiliary system(s), necessary for the generating unit operation such that they will not trip the generating unit during underfrequency conditions above the appropriate generator underfrequency trip protection settings threshold curve in Figure 1.

R16 Each Generator Owner of existing non-nuclear units in service prior to the effective date of this standard that have underfrequency protections set to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1 shall: [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

16.1 Set the underfrequency protection to operate at the lowest frequency allowed by the plant design and licensing limitations.

16.2 Transmit the existing underfrequency settings and any changes to the underfrequency settings along with the technical basis for the settings to the Planning Coordinator.

16.3 Have compensatory load shedding, as provided by a Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner that is adequate to compensate for the loss of their generator due to early tripping.

R17 Each Planning Coordinator in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces shall apply the criteria described in Attachment A to determine the compensatory load shedding that is required in Requirement R16.3 for generating units in its respective NPCC area. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R18 Each Generator Owner, Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner within the Planning Coordinator area of ISO-NE or the New York ISO shall apply the criteria described in Attachment B to determine the compensatory load shedding that is required in Requirement R16.3 for generating units in its respective NPCC area. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R19 Each Generator Owner of existing nuclear generating plants with units that have underfrequency relay threshold settings above the Eastern Interconnection generator tripping curve in Figure 1, based on their licensing design basis, shall: [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

19.1 Set the underfrequency protection to operate at as low a frequency as possible in accordance with the plant design and licensing limitations but not greater than 57.8Hz.

19.2 Set the frequency trip setting upper tolerance to no greater than + 0.1 Hz.

19.3 Transmit the initial frequency trip setting and any changes to the setting and the technical basis for the settings to the Planning Coordinator.

R20 The Planning Coordinator shall update its UFLS program database as specified by the NERC PRC Standard on UFLS. This database shall include the following information: [Violation Risk Factor: Lower] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

20.1 For each UFLS relay, including those used for compensatory load shedding, the amount and location of load shed at peak, the corresponding frequency threshold and time delay settings.

20.2 The buses at which the Load is modeled in the NPCC library power flow case.

20.3 A list of all generating units that may be tripped for underfrequency conditions above the appropriate generator underfrequency trip protection settings threshold curve in Figure 1, including the frequency trip threshold and time delay for each protection system.

20.4 The location and amount of additional elements to be switched for voltage control that are coordinated with UFLS program tripping.

20.5 A list of all UFLS relay inhibit functions along with the corresponding settings and locations of these relays.

R21 Each Planning Coordinator shall notify each Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner, and Generator Owner within its Planning Coordinator area of changes to load distribution needed to satisfy UFLS program performance characteristics as specified by the NERC PRC Standard on UFLS.[Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R22 Each Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner and Generator Owner shall implement the load distribution changes based on the notification provided by the Planning Coordinator in accordance with Requirement R21. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long Term Planning]

R23 Each Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner and Generator Owner shall develop and submit an implementation plan within 90 days of the request from the Planning Coordinator for approval by the Planning Coordinator in accordance with Requirement R21. [Violation Risk Factor: Lower] [Time Horizon: Operations Planning]

 

Measures

M1 Each Planning Coordinator shall have evidence such as reports, system studies and/or real time power flow data captured from actual system events and other dated documentation that demonstrates it meets Requirement R1.

M2. Each Planning Coordinator shall have evidence such as dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets requirement R2.

M3 Each Planning Coordinator shall have evidence such as dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R3.

M4 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner in the Eastern Interconnection portion of NPCC shall have evidence such as documentation or reports containing the location and amount of load to be tripped, and the corresponding frequency thresholds, on those circuits included in its UFLS program to achieve the individual and cumulative percentages identified in Requirement R4. (Attachment C Tables 1-3).

M5 Each Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner shall have evidence such as reports, analysis, system studies and dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R5.

M6 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner in the Québec Interconnection shall have evidence such as documentation or reports containing the location and amount of load to be tripped and the corresponding frequency thresholds on those circuits included in its UFLS program to achieve the load values identified in Table 4 of Requirement R6. (Attachment C Table 4).

M7 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall have evidence such as documentation or reports that their underfrequency relays have been set with the minimum time delay, in accordance with Requirement R7.

M8 Each Planning Coordinator shall have evidence such as reports, system studies or analysis that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R8.

M9 Each Planning Coordinator shall provide evidence such as letters, emails, or other dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R9.

M10 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall provide evidence such as test reports, data sheets or other documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R10.

M11 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall provide evidence such as letters, emails or other dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R11.

M12 Each Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall provide evidence such as reports, spreadsheets or other dated documentation submitted to its Planning Coordinator that indicates the frequency set point, the net amount of load shed and the percentage of its peak load at each stage of its UFLS program coincident with the integrated hourly peak of the previous year that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R12.

M13 Each Generator Owner shall provide evidence such as reports, data sheets, spreadsheets or other documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R13.

M14 Each Generator Owner shall provide evidence such as emails, letters or other dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R14.

M15 Each Generator Owner shall provide evidence such as reports, data sheets, specifications, memorandum or other documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R15.

M16 Each Generator Owner with existing non-nuclear units in service prior to the effective date of this Standard which have underfrequency tripping that is not compliant with Requirement R13 shall provide evidence such as reports, spreadsheets, memorandum or dated documentation demonstrating that it meets Requirement R16.

M17 Each Planning Coordinator in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces shall provide evidence such as emails, memorandum or other documentation that demonstrates that it followed the methodology described in Attachment A and meets Requirement R17.

M18 Each Generator Owner, Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner within the Planning Coordinator area of ISO-NE or the New York ISO shall provide evidence such as emails, memorandum, or other documentation that demonstrates that it followed the methodology described in Attachment B and meets Requirement R18.

M19 Each Generator Owner of nuclear units that have been specifically identified by NPCC as having generator trip settings above the generator trip curve in Figure 1 shall provide evidence such as letters, reports and dated documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R19.

M20 Each Planning Coordinator shall provide evidence such as spreadsheets, system studies, or other documentation that demonstrates that it meets the requirements of Requirement R20.

M21 Each Planning Coordinator shall provide evidence such as emails, memorandum or other dated documentation that it meets Requirement R21.

M22 Each Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner and Generator Owner shall provide evidence such as reports, spreadsheets or other documentation that demonstrates that it meets Requirement R22.

M23 Each Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner and Generator Owner shall provide evidence such as letters, emails or other dated documentation that demonstrates it meets Requirement 23.

Compliance

1. Compliance Monitoring Process

1.1. Compliance Enforcement Authority

NPCC Compliance Committee

1.2. Evidence Retention

Not Applicable

1.3. Data Retention

The Distribution Provider and Transmission Owner shall keep evidences for three calendar years for Measures 4, 5, 6,7,10, 11, and 12.

The Planning Coordinator shall keep evidence for three calendar years for Measures 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 20, and 21.

The Planning Coordinator in Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces shall keep evidence for three calendar years for Measure 17.

The Distribution Provider, Transmission Owner, and Generator Owner shall keep evidences for three calendar years for Measures 18, 22, and 23.

The Generator Owner shall keep evidence for three calendar years for Measures 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19.

1.3. Compliance Monitoring and Assessment Processes

  • Self-Certification
  • Spot Checking
  • Compliance Audits
  • Self-Reporting
  • Compliance Violation Investigations
  • Complaints

1.4. Additional Compliance Information

None


PRC-006-NPCC-1 Attachment A

Compensatory Load Shedding Criteria for Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces

The Planning Coordinator in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces is responsible for establishing the compensatory load shedding requirements for all existing non-nuclear units in its NPCC area with underfrequency protections set to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1. In addition, it is the Planning Coordinator’s responsibility to communicate these requirements to the appropriate Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner and to ensure that adequate compensatory load shedding is provided in all islands identified in Requirement R1 in which the unit may operate.

The methodology below provides a set of criteria for the Planning Coordinator to follow for determining compensatory load shedding requirements:

1. The Planning Coordinator shall identify, compile and maintain an updated list of all existing non-nuclear generating units in service prior to the effective date of this standard that have underfrequency protections set to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1. The list shall include the following information for each unit:

1.1 Generator name and generating capacity

1.2 Underfrequency protection trip settings, including frequency trip set points and time delays

1.3 Physical and electrical location of the unit

1.4 All islands within which the unit may operate, as identified in Requirement R1

2. For each generating unit identified in (1) above, the Planning Coordinator shall establish the requirements for compensatory load shedding based on criteria outlined below:

2.1 Arrange for a Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner that owns UFLS relays within the island(s) identified by the Planning Coordinator in Requirement R1 within which the generator may operate to provide compensatory load shedding.

2.2 The compensatory load shedding that is provided by the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner shall be in addition to the amount that the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner is required to shed as specified in Requirement R4..

2.3 The compensatory load shedding shall be provided at the UFLS program stage (or threshold stage for Quebec) with a frequency threshold setting that corresponds to the highest frequency at which the subject generator will trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1 during an underfrequency event. If the highest frequency at which the subject generator will trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1 does not correspond to a specific UFLS program stage threshold setting, the compensatory load shedding shall be provided at the UFLS program stage with a frequency threshold setting that is higher than the highest frequency at which the subject generator will trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1.

2.4 The amount of compensatory load shedding shall be equivalent (±5%) to the average net generator megawatt output for the prior two calendar years, as specified by the Planning Coordinator, plus expected station loads to be transferred to the system upon loss of the facility. The net generation output should only include those hours when the unit was a net generator to the electric system.

In the specific instance of a generating unit that has been interconnected to the electric system for less than two calendar years, the amount of compensatory load shedding shall be equivalent (±5%) to the maximum claimed seasonal capability of the generator over two calendar years, plus expected station loads to be transferred to the system upon loss of the facility.


PRC-006-NPCC-1 Attachment B

Compensatory Load Shedding Criteria for ISO-NE and NYISO

The Generator Owner in the New England states or New York State are responsible for establishing a compensatory load shedding program for all existing non-nuclear units with underfrequency protection set to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1 of this standard. The Generator Owner shall follow the methodology below to determine compensatory load shedding requirements:

1. The Generator Owner shall identify and compile a list of all existing non-nuclear generating units in service prior to the effective date of this standard that has underfrequency protection set to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1. The list shall include the following information associated with each unit:

1.1 Generator name and generating capacity

1.2 Underfrequency protection trip settings, including frequency trip set points and time delays

1.3 Physical and electrical location of the unit

1.4 Smallest island within which the unit may operate as identified by the Planning Coordinator in Requirement R1 of this Standard.

2. For each generating unit identified in (1) above, the Generator Owner shall establish the requirements for compensatory load shedding based on criteria outlined below:

2.1 In cases where a Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner has coordinated protection settings with the Generator Owner to cause the generator to trip above the appropriate curve in Figure 1, the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner is responsible to provide the appropriate amount of compensatory load to be shed within the smallest island identified by the Planning Coordinator in Requirement R1 of this standard.

2.2 In cases where a Generator Owner has a generator that cannot physically meet the set points defined by the appropriate curve in Figure 1, the Generator Owner shall arrange for a Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner to provide the appropriate amount of compensatory load to be shed within the smallest island identified by the Planning Coordinator in Requirement R1 of this standard.

2.3 The compensatory load shedding that is provided by the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner shall be in addition to the amount that the Distribution Provider or Transmission Owner is required to shed as specified in Requirement R4.

2.4 The compensatory load shedding shall be provided at the UFLS program stage with the frequency threshold setting at or closest to but above the frequency at which the subject generator will trip.

2.5 The amount of compensatory load shedding shall be equivalent (±5%) to the average net generator megawatt output for the prior two calendar years, as specified by the Planning Coordinator, plus expected station loads to be transferred to the system upon loss of the facility. The net generation output should only include those hours when the unit was a net generator to the electric system.

In the specific instance of a generating unit that has been interconnected to the electric system for less than two calendar years, the amount of compensatory load shedding shall be equivalent (±5%) to the maximum claimed seasonal capability of the generator over two calendar years, plus expected station loads to be transferred to the system upon loss of the facility.


PRC-006-NPCC-1 Attachment C

UFLS Table 1: Eastern Interconnection

Distribution Providers and Transmission Owners with 100 MW or more of peak net Load shall implement a UFLS program with the following attributes:
Frequency Threshold (Hz)Total Nominal Operating Time (s)1Load Shed at Stage as % of TO or DP LoadCumulative Load Shed as % of TO or DP Load
59.50.306.5 – 7.56.5 – 7.5
59.30.306.5 – 7.513.5 – 14.5
59.10.306.5 – 7.520.5 – 21.5
58.90.306.5 – 7.527.5 – 28.5
59.510.02 – 329.5 – 31.5
UFLS Table 2: Eastern Interconnection

Distribution Providers and Transmission Owners with 50 MW or more and less than 100 MW of peak net Load shall implement a UFLS program with the following attributes:
UFLS StageFrequency Threshold (Hz)Total Nominal Operating Time(s)1Load Shed at Stage as % of TO or DP LoadCumulative Load Shed as % of TO or DP Load
159.50.3014-2514-25
259.10.3014-2528-50
UFLS Table 3: Eastern Interconnection

Distribution Providers and Transmission Owners with 25 MW or more and less than 50 MW of peak net Load shall implement a UFLS program with the following attributes:
UFLS StageFrequency Threshold (Hz)Total Nominal Operating Time(s)1Load Shed at Stage as % of TO or DP LoadCumulative Load Shed as % of TO or DP Load
159.50.3028-5028-50
UFLS Table 4: Quebec Interconnection
 RateFrequency (Hz)MW at peak (*Load must be fixed at all times when above 60% of peak load..)Mvar at peakTotal Nominal Operating Time (s) 2
Threshold Stage 1–––58.51000*10000.30
Threshold Stage 2–––58.0800*8000.30
Threshold Stage 3–––57.58008000.30
Threshold Stage 4–––57.08008000.30
Threshold Stage 5 (anti-stall)–––59.050050020.0
Slope Stage 1-0.3 Hz/s58.54004000.30
Slope Stage 2-0.4 Hz/s59.8800*8000.30
Slope Stage 3-0.6 Hz/s59.8800*8000.30
Slope Stage 4-0.9 Hz/s59.88008000.30

1. The total nominal operating time includes the underfrequency relay operating time plus any interposing auxiliary relay operating times, communication times, and the rated breaker interrupting time. The underfrequency relay operating time is measured from the time when frequency passes through the frequency threshold setpoint, using a test rate of frequency decay of 0.2 Hz per second. If the relay operating time is dependent on the rate of frequency decay, the underfrequency relay operating time and any subsequent testing of the UFLS relays shall utilize a test rate of linear frequency decay of 0.2 Hz per second.

2.  The total nominal operating time includes the underfrequency relay operating time plus any interposing auxiliary relay operating times, communications time, and the rated breaker interrupting time. The underfrequency relay operating time shall be measured from the time when the frequency passes through the frequency threshold set point.

 

 


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